Gold nail polish designs 2018

Fingernails before and after application of red nail polish Fingernails and toenails with red nail polish.

Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a that can be applied to the human to decorate and protect the. The formulation has been revised repeatedly to enhance its decorative effects, and to suppress cracking or flaking. Nail polish consists of a mix of an organic polymer and several other components, depending on the brand. People use this liquid to create simple or complicated designs with bright colors, charms, or other.



Nail polish originated in China and dates back to 3000 BC. Around 600 BC, during the, the royal house preferred the colors gold and silver. However, red and black eventually replaced these metallic colors as royal favorites. During the, nail polish was often made from a mixture that included,,, vegetable dyes, and.

In, the lower classes wore pale colors, whereas high society painted their nails a reddish brown, with. Mummified pharaohs also had their nails painted with.

Colored nail polish did not make an appearance until the 1920s. Early nail polish formulas were created using basic ingredients such as,, oxide tin, and It was more gold nail polish designs 2018 common to polish nails with tinted powders and creams, and finish by buffing the nail until left shiny. One type of polishing product sold around this time was Graf's Hyglo nail polish paste.


Nitrocellulose is a film-forming polymer that is the main ingredient in most nail polishes.

Nail polish consists of a film-forming dissolved in a volatile organic solvent. that is dissolved in or is common. This basic formulation is expanded to include the following:

  • Plasticizers to yield non-brittle films. and are typical plasticizers.
  • Dyes and pigments. Representative compounds include greens, chromium hydroxide,,,,,,, and.
  • Opalescent pigments. The glittery/shimmer look in the color can be conferred by,, natural pearls, and aluminum powder.
  • Adhesive polymers ensure that the nitrocellulose adheres to the nail's surface. One modifier used is tosylamide-formaldehyde.
  • Thickening agents are added to maintain the sparkling particles in suspension while in the bottle. A typical thickener is stearalkonium hectorite. Thickening agents exhibit, their solutions are viscous when still but free flowing when agitated. This duality is convenient for easily applying the freshly shaken mixture to give a film that quickly rigidifies.
  • Ultraviolet stabilizers resist color changes when the dry film is exposed to sunlight. A typical stabilizer is.

Base coat[]

This type of nail polish is a clear, milky-colored, or opaque pink polish formula that is used specifically before applying nail polish to the nail. The purpose of it is to strengthen nails, restore moisture to the nail, and/or help polish adhere to the nail so staining will not occur and the manicure lasts longer than without a base coat. Some base coats are marketed as "ridge fillers" which can create a smooth surface, and reduce the appearance of the ridges that can appear on unbuffed nails.

Top coat[]

This type of nail polish is a clear colored polish formula that is used specifically after applying nail polish to the nail. It forms a hardened barrier for the nail that can prevent chipping, scratching and peeling. Many top coats are marketed as "quick-drying." Top coats can help the underlying colored polish dry quickly as well. It gives the polish a more finished and desired look and may help to keep the polish on for longer.


Gel polish is a long-lasting variety of nail polish made up of a type of methacrylate polymer. It is painted on the nail similar to traditional nail polish, but does not dry. Instead it is under an lamp or. While regular nail polish formulas typically last two to seven days without chipping, gel polish can last as long as two weeks with proper application and home care. Gel polish can be more difficult to remove than regular nail polish. It is usually gently pushed off (often with a wooden stick) after soaking the nails in pure (the solvent used in most nail polish removers) for eight to fifteen minutes.


Matte polish is like regular polish, but has a purposely dull finish rather than a shine. It can be purchased as a regular base coat in ranges of different colors. Matte nail polish can also be found in a top coat. Matte top coat is most useful for painting over any dry base color, giving it a different appearance. The matte top coat polish will dull the shine from a regular base coat polish. Matte polish has become very popular through the years, particularly since it can be used in applications, where designs can be created on the nail using the contrast of both shiny and matte surfaces.

In fashion[]

Traditionally, nail polish started in clear,,,, and black. Nail polish can be found in a diverse variety of colors and shades. Beyond solid colors, nail polish has also developed an array of other designs, such as crackled, glitter, flake, speckled, iridescent, and holographic. or other decorative art are also often applied to nail polish. Some polish is advertised to induce nail growth, make nails stronger, prevent nails from breaking, cracking/ splitting, and to even stop nail biting.

French manicure[]

French manicures are designed to resemble natural nails, and are characterized by natural pink base nails with white tips. French manicures were one of the first popular and well known color schemes. French manicures may have originated in the eighteenth-century in Paris but were most popular in the 1920s and 1930s. One updated trend involves painting different colors as the tips of the nails instead of the basic white. French tip nails can be made with stickers, stencils, or with a basic toothpick.

Social media[]

At home nail polish collection in the U.S.

has given rise to the culture that allows users to share their pictures about their nail art. "WWD reports nail polish sales hit a record 8 million in the in 2012, a 32% gain over 2011, despite a cluttered market that seemingly sees a new launch each week." Several new polishes and related products came on to the market in the second decade of the twenty-first century as part of the explosion of nail art, such as nail stickers (either made of nail polish or plastic), stencils, magnetic nail polish,nail pens, glitter and sequin topcoats, nail caviar (micro beads) nail polish marketed for men, scented nail polish, and color changing nail polish (some which change hue when exposed to sunshine, and ranges which change hue in response to heat).[],, and have been popular sites on which many people around the world are posting their unique nail art.

Western world[]

Nail polish in the has traditionally been worn by women, going in and out of acceptability depending upon moral customs of the day. In culture it was generally considered improper for women to adorn themselves with either makeup or nail coloring, since natural appearances were considered more chaste and pure. In the 1920s, however, women left and long gowns behind, changed to simple loose-fitting dresses, and began to wear color in new makeups and nail products, partly in rebellion to such prim customs of their recent past. Since the 1920s, nail colors progressed from French manicures and standard reds to various palettes of color choices, usually coordinated with the fashion industry's clothing colors for the season. By the 1940's the whole nail is finally painted as before it was fashionable to have the tips bare and half-moon on the nail bed.

Men have begun to wear clear polish on their nails to protect them from breakage, and as recorded from 2013, a few men have also started to wear colored nail polish on their toenails, and some even on their hands, possibly arising from its use by musicians or in. While pastel colors such as pink are not typically worn by men, colors such as black, gun metal, silver, olive green, or brown are more often seen. This is especially true in warm climate areas where open-toed shoes are worn and can mask damaged or disfigured nails.


Nail polish

There are 15 principal nail polish finishes:

  • Shimmer
  • Micro-shimmer
  • Micro-glitter
  • Glitter
  • Frost
  • Lustre
  • Creme
  • Prismatic micro-glitter or shimmer
  • Opalescent
  • Matte
  • Duochrome
  • Jelly or translucent
  • Magnetic
  • Crackled
  • Glass-flecked
  • Holographic

Nail polish remover[]

Nail polish remover is an that may also include oils, scents, and coloring. Nail polish remover packages may include individual felt pads soaked in remover, a bottle of liquid remover used with a cotton ball or, or a container filled with foam into which one inserts a finger and twists it until the polish comes off. Choosing a type of remover is determined by the user's preference, and often the price or quality of the remover.

The most common remover is. This can be harsh on skin and nails. Acetone can also remove made of or cured.

A less harsh nail polish remover is, which often also contains. Ethyl acetate is usually the original solvent for nail polish itself.

has been used as a nail polish remover, but it is more toxic and potentially more than the aforementioned options. It has been banned in the for use in cosmetics since 17 March 2000.

Health concerns[]

The safety of nail polish was examined in the fall 2014 issue of

The health risks associated with nail polish are disputed. According to the U.S., "The amount of chemicals used in animal studies is probably a couple of hundred times higher than what you would be exposed to from using nail polish every week or so. So the chances of any individual phthalate producing such harm [in humans] is very slim." A more serious health risk is faced by professional nail technicians, who perform manicures over a workstation, known as a nail table, on which the client's hands rest – directly below the technician's breathing zone. In 2009, Susan Reutman, an with the U.S. 's Division of Applied Research and Technology, announced a federal effort to evaluate the effectiveness of in removing potential nail polish chemical and dust exposures from the technician's work area. These ventilation systems have potential to reduce worker exposure to chemicals by at least 50%. Many nail technicians will often wear masks to cover their mouth and nose from inhaling any of the harsh dust or chemicals from the nail products.

According to Reutman, a growing body of scientific literature suggests that some inhaled and absorbed found in nail salons such as glycol ethers and carbon disulfide may have adverse effects on reproductive health. These effects may including birth defects, low birth weight, miscarriage, and preterm birth.

Nail polish formulations may include ingredients that are toxic or affect other health problems. One controversial family of ingredient are, which are implicated as and linked to problems in the and increased risk of. Manufacturers have been pressured by consumer groups to reduce or to eliminate potentially-toxic ingredients, and in September 2006, several companies agreed to phase out dibutyl phthalates. There are no universal consumer safety standards for nail polish, however, and while formaldehyde has been eliminated from some nail polish brands, others still use it.

Regulation and environmental concerns[]

The U.S. city of enacted a city ordinance, publicly identifying establishments that use nail polishes free of the "toxic trio" of,, and.

Nail polish is considered a by some regulatory bodies such as the Department of Public Works. Many countries have strict restrictions on sending nail polish by mail. The "toxic trio" are currently being phased out, but there are still components of nail polish that could cause environmental concern. Leaking out of the bottle into the soil could cause contamination in ground water. green and are common in nail polish and have shown evidence of going through chemical degradation, which could have a detrimental effect on health.[]


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  17. Emma Carlson Berne Nail Care Tips & Tricks 2015 - Page 13 1467786551 "Chrome. Many polishes give off a metallic sheen. Duochrome or multichrome polish contains several colors. The colors flash differently, depending on the reflection of the light. Iridescent polish is a softer version of duochrome."
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  24. . Local World, Ltd. 1 April 2014. Archived from on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. With inviting names such as peaches and cream or Caramel Smoothie, you are led away from the potential dangers of these polishes, with some ingredients that are known cancer causing chemicals and those toxic to the nervous system. The top three chemicals of concern are toluene, dibutyl phthalate (dbp) and formaldehyde – the so called 'toxic trio'. 
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Further reading[]

  • Charles Panati, Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things,, 1987

External links[]

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